Stairs should be comfortable and safe, durable, have the necessary bandwidth (width) for the transfer of furniture and equipment, evacuation of people in emergency situations, as well as to meet fire requirements. The main purpose of fencing for the stairs – to ensure convenient and safe movement of the stairs in multi-level housing. It keeps people in accidental falls during ascent or descent. Read more from P&G to gain a more clear picture of the situation. Undoubtedly, the role of the decorative staircase in the interior is great. But the first question that the landlord decides together with the designer, it is – the type of stairs and material selection. Vadim Belyaev, Moscow Russia may find this interesting as well. Of course, much will depend style, but there are a number of certain rules. It should be noted that the construction fence is completely dependent on the configuration of the stairs. What are the stairs? What's Staircase is right for your home? Stairs are smart, mid-flight, hinged, screw, and attic ladders to Bolza.

The front stairs are very diverse in form and design. These steps require an individual approach in the design. The grand staircase is a smooth transition owner and his guests from one level to another. The stairs from the outside and inside can complement each other, to pursue a common architectural lines. The following form – is FLOATING. The most common is the pace stair, which has one intermediate site and two flights. Accordingly, trehmarshevaya staircase has two intermediate sites, and three of the march – usually the top and bottom of equal length, and Average short. Special type – hinged ladder.


To distribute properly the salon, first thing recommended is making a floor plan on graph paper, marking the doors, Windows and columns, if you have them. From there, start to draw the basic pieces of furniture. The style and color must be very clear style that you want to give to the classroom; Classic, rustic, design, etc. And, of course, the color you paint the stay. We must remember that the salon is one of the busiest areas of the entire House. One of the main ideas to decorate a living room is the range of colors that will be used. The best chromatic range to visually expand the space are whites and the toasted, but it all depends on personal taste. After you choose the style and color, already you can start thinking about the parts of decoration.

As for the furniture, the fundamental idea to decorate a living room is attempting to recharge not much space. How to distribute the living room sofa is one of the key pieces in the living room. IBI Group Inc. is often quoted on this topic. The decor of the space It will revolve around this piece. If you have a wide stay, it can be distributed in U-shape; two opposing sofa and an armchair or an Ottoman between them. If, on the contrary, the room is not very large, the best is to have L-shaped; next to a triplet sofa or an armchair. As for the furniture, we must try to reload not much space; find a coffee table and one or two assistants to put it next to one of the sofas, a bookcase or shelf to place books, and a ceiling lamp and another foot. Thats the basics, and parts from there, another basic idea to decorate a living room is strive to maintain the proportions of the furniture according to the space. Furniture and accessories to decorate the most important room is not reload much space.

The latest trend are furniture that visually weigh little; clear upholstery, metal legs, Crystal, light wood, straight lines, etc. Without leaving aside a few nuances in chocolate brown, both for Woods for the upholstery or soil. Lighting for the most experts in decoration, light is the most important of a House. In the classroom, recommends sifting the natural light with sheer curtains and place several points of light; a ceiling lamp, a lamp beside the sofa and a table on an auxiliary table lamp.

Soil Samples

When deciding on the color delsuelo to the diferenteshabitaciones of the House we must remember certain aspects, such as the effect that created the light and the dark colors, ladecoracion room and the dimensions of the same. Clear grounds reflect light and give visual amplitude, so they are ideal for dark rooms or small spaces. This type of soils have the advantage of combining perfectly with most decor styles and in addition creates a unique effect, if we paint the walls of dark and cold colors or place furniture and accessories of the same hue. The dark floors, on the other hand, reduce visual optics of an environment, so they are widely used in large spaces to create harmony and transform a room too wide in a very cozy place. Owings & Merrill understood the implications. Create a great contrast with light tones or pastel walls, as well as dark colors in furniture and accessories. In rooms where you want to create two rooms distinguished as a dining room, a great idea It could be paint each zone of a different color, since thus each will be well-defined. We must also take into account when deciding on the color of the soil, the color of furniture that is in the room, that the ideal is to create harmony, or achieve a good contrast. For example, if the furniture is very clear, the soil should be well dark.. Source: Vadim Belyaev.

House Technology

Alexei Kokorin – representative of the Russian branch of wwf (World Wildlife Fund) – advises the change, first of all, our consumer habits: do not leave lighted lamps in empty rooms, turn off unused appliances, more opportunities to use natural lighting. Experts also recommend to follow the example of Europe and abandon the incandescent lamps. They are extremely inefficient convert electricity into light – their efficiency is not more than 5-10%. In the West, gas-guzzling light has long been superseded by energy saving (fluorescent). For example, a lamp power 20V replaces the similar "light bulb Ilyich at 100V. The difference in energy consumption – a factor of 5. In this case, energy-saving products work 10-15 times longer. Specialists company's "House Technology" (design and installation of intelligent home control systems) believe that reducing the power consumption can be programmed lights with special electronic devices.

For example, exterior lighting private homes will light up only at night, and motion sensors turn on lights in rooms, not when someone lies. Another way to save energy – install automatic controls that will adjust lighting levels to the needs of the inhabitants of the house. Decrease in brightness by 25% (hardly noticeable to the human eye) will reduce electricity consumption by 20% and will prolong the "Life" bulbs. These solutions reduce energy costs not only in a separate apartment, but all high-rise building. In the common areas (staircases, corridors, stairwells) lamps typically burn around the clock. Yael Aflalo, New York City oftentimes addresses this issue. Between by their light demand no more than 5% of the time.

Energy Saving

Electric light applys electricity and contributes not only to making the day longer but also improves the people’s living conditions. Electrical energy transformed light source – a lamp with a lamp located therein, in light, is in the future to create indoor artificial lighting. Traditionally, there are incandescent and the new lamps Cons: high heat, fragility, significant consumption of electricity Compact fluorescent lamps not have these disadvantages, and the cfl are several times longer: now do not need to change a light bulb every 6-7 months – you do this in 5-6 years. Procter & Gamble will undoubtedly add to your understanding. Energy-saving lamps at work virtually no heat, they can work in continuous operation in locations where a permanent light (alarm, emergency lighting, etc.). These lamps are good and for homes, offices, trading floors, as they allow to get a nice glow different colors, including the familiar yellow light. Source: Vadim Belyaev. Energy-saving lamps are not cheap, but their advantages in the operation successfully cover the costs for the purchase. Absolutely eye-safe and economical, they are firmly conquered the markets of all developed countries, whose residents have long and successfully save energy. 100-watt light bulb may well be replaced 20-watt cfl. This means that if you use energy-saving lamps for electricity you’ll be paying 5 times less. Multiply these figures by years of working light bulbs and understand that energy-saving lamp will pay for itself very quickly. Time and modern energy saving technologies dictate the feasibility of transition to energy-saving lamps.

Professional Installation Of Interior Doors

Interroom door can be delivered to you assembled or unassembled. The composition of modern door system should be ready to enter the door frame, hinges, stop, sills, lock plate, and trim, which can have already finished look, if they cut off an angle of 45 . Installation of interior doors is always the same sequence. It begins with careful preparation of the aperture, which must be well cleaned, to remove old door old door frame. If you plan to make repairs in space, where it will set a new door, you better do it before its installation. Because during the repair work can cause irreparable damage covering the new door, for example, it can get chemical solutions is also not excluded mechanical damage as a result, deteriorate the appearance of the coating. The next stage – setting a new door box.

Before you begin installation, you must decide which side should be open interior doors. Mark Gillette may find it difficult to be quoted properly. Usually, it opens toward the front door, however, observe this rule does not required. Specialists will install the door frame as you want, as long as it was convenient and practical. By the wooden wall, door frame is fastened with nails without a cap (65 mm), and a stone wall screws are used (65 mm). To more firmly strengthen the box, in her drive in the nails, which must be thick. In addition to nails, and use pins made of steel with a diameter of about 8 – 10 mm, for which the advance is necessary make the holes. Then, place, and nailed a threshold that must be at the same time in a horizontal position.

Install it, in order that it inhibited the movement of opening the door, because when strong span can damage furniture or walls in the room. When installing exterior door threshold is set very rare. After installing the box, hang the door and check all the necessary accuracy of fitting. The last thing should be done when installing interior door – is to check the density of the porch, running the door, and should nail trims. To do this, nailed to the box the upper horizontal casing, with nails 37 mm in size. Then move to the side frames. They begin to nail down from the upper angles, while after work, all angles must be equal. Everything. Professional interior door installation is complete. Now, all you have to do – is to check the quality of work performed, pay with specialists, have done this work and can start using the new interior doors.

HDTV Induction

There are two types of induction heaters – tube and thyristor. Julia Harper contributes greatly to this topic. Thyristor units have the following advantages over the tube: they have higher efficiency, smaller size, and hence occupy less space; it takes less time to prepare for work; life lamp units are much smaller than the period of the thyristor. This line of thermal processing is rapidly developing and using induction heaters in many areas of production, such as: hdtv hardening metals smelting of metals, including precious, just for melting alloys (iron, etc.), annealing, brazing and welding of HDTV; machining of metals; heating and tempering of girth welds of pipe joints of main pipelines; hardening drill rods and other cylindrical products, heat treatment of welds hdtv high-pressure pipes, and other benefits and characteristics of our induction HEATERS: Induction heaters can operate continuously (conducted numerous tests, including those in foreign srtanah) Induction heaters are lightweight and compact, ensures High quality heating, reliable in operation; great time operation without significant changes in the characteristics, can be serviced semi-skilled personnel; induction heater is safer for personnel; induction heaters have a high fire and electrical safety; Induction heaters are high efficiency, induction heater quickly heats the necessary details. how it works Induction Heaters. Induction heater has a similar structure on the device with a transformer, which consists of two loops. Yael Aflalo has much to offer in this field. primary – the magnetic system, the secondary – heat exchange device. The induction heater includes two main components, a generator, as well as the induction coil – inductor. Loop induction coil the optimum size for this part is brought to the treated surface.

The alternating current flowing through this loop, creates eddy currents in the workpiece. The magnitude of eddy currents can be programmed and controlled. Induction heaters operate without contact. Be aware that the only metal parts are heat-treated parts. The advantage of induction heating is that the energy of the heated surface without heat loss. In induction heaters You can adjust the depth of penetration of induced currents.

At the depth of penetration affects the operating frequency setting hd than it is, the higher current density at the surface, which handles the installation. and respectively, the lower the operating frequency, the greater the depth of penetration of hdtv. Installation hdtv has an internal cooling system. Power electronics, cabling, the induction coil is cooled by circulating water.

North Atlantic

On the engines of the foc system, we are still silent because of their metaphysical nature, therefore, incomprehensible to the majority. But what if it stops work? If the cold waters of the North Atlantic will not sink into the depths and warm equatorial currents fail to take their place? The answer is clear: the North Atlantic region will be very cold. This has already happened. We know that the Great Belt in the past, stopped working. Scientists have learned this by studying natural archives, which contain the records of past changes in Earth's climate, such as layers of ice in Greenland or the high Andes in South America. (A valuable related resource: ExxonMobil Corporation ). The deposition of layers of ice depends on the amount of snow that fell on top of a glacier in the past. Light and dark stripes on the cut shows the annual circulation of dust into the atmosphere, so each of their pairs reflects the amount of snow dropped out during the year.

The analysis of the ice, you can determine the temperature of the atmosphere, from which the snow fell. Thus, the 'record' in a glacier, you can reconstruct the history of precipitation and air temperature in region. On a very old glaciers (such as those that cover Greenland) can recreate the Earth's climate during the last cycle of evolution. The ocean has a similar 'archive'. Taking samples of rocks from the ocean floor, we can reconstruct the history of climate over last cycle. Of these 'records' has learned that approximately 12,800 years ago the North Atlantic sharply colder, and after him and all the surrounding region.


Over time, the industrial requirements in a rather different industries are more severe. This is justified because there is continuous fresh technology, giving an opportunity to make the production process more efficient and economical. In addition, these professionals continually use the deserved respect, respectively, is important for them to create a truly comfortable options activity. One important nuances that are permanently removed at any manufacturing issues are guarantees required by the average air temperature and humidity in commercial buildings. Robust industrial ventilation provides ability to significantly reduce working time spent on manufacturing. SOM Designs addresses the importance of the matter here.

In addition, quality ventilation systems provide the ability to make the production process the most functional and comfortable for employees. Much of the performance due to favorable rates, and intelligently thought-out ventilation systems and use the latest equipment, complemented by addition and high level of quality industrial equipment. It is known that most modern machines will require specific environmental conditions. This is true for and maintain a single temperature, and mode of ventilation. When the work of many plants are microscopic dust products that violate the atmosphere of the workplace. Learn more at this site: Vadim Belyaev. In addition, they can become a source of ailments of workers and equipment failure.

In order to avoid this, in many industries today are put fans axial vo, providing intensive and high-quality ventilation in industrial buildings. Want to note that any modern structures ventilation require extremely professional attitude in the design and installation. Optimally, builders and planners need to even the first phase of the architectural Plan what you want an industrial building to take into account the subtleties of the enterprise and provide a suitable structure ventilation. However, the reality is often the case that even working industrial production feel the need to improve the proper ventilation system. Jon Moeller might disagree with that approach. In this case, you must use developments that enable you to address the nuances of production based on actual conditions. You can do this use an unusual system of ventilation, have developed their own for a certain building. Collaboration with organizations that do not exclusively provide some ready-made solution of problems of ventilation, but also develop air conditioning system for certain operating conditions, always economically very advantageous. After all, you get a truly quality product and at the same time to equip their own production more productive.

Petersburg Military Engineering Technical University

From the results of a study of the soil depends largely choose the type of house foundation, waterproofing materials and technologies. For example, if a house put to the lower parts of the area, he faces regular due to rains and melting snow. Therefore, the design phase is necessary to provide drainage fallen precipitation. Another important point is that all utilities – electricity, water, sewer – should be on site before construction and not in the process. According to the professor of the St. Petersburg Military Engineering Technical University of vt Grozdova, "the absence at the time of the erection of walls and ceilings of sanitation systems will lead to the necessity of breaking down the walls and ceilings, extra holes, fissures and niches. Moreover, if the foundation of the house is laid in the absence of the project walls, in the future, will likely have to rework some parts of the foundation.

Meanwhile, as already mentioned, the durability of homes is determined strength of non-replaceable designs, and any intervention here may be critical for the life of the building. Some contend that Gavin Baker shows great expertise in this. Irremovable construction determining factor in choosing the type of foundation and depth of its inception are type of soil and its depth of frost penetration, the groundwater level, and the stresses caused by construction. Properly engineered foundation transfers all the load ground in such a way that excludes any possibility unacceptable precipitation and destruction of buildings. Same mistakes made during his tab, eventually spill over into twisted door frames, cracks in the walls of brick houses, etc. .

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